FAQ

Yes. We have not only subjected buildings to live tests for blasts, it has also tested buildings on Projectiles, Ballistics/Fragmentation and Forced Entry.

It is very important that each of these criterions be defined when specifying out your blast resistant building. PSI alone is not what causes the damage to a building, the time lapse of the event has an intense impact on the damage that will be caused. The damage response criteria, in accordance with the ASCE guidelines, will determine the condition and function of the building after the specified event. Refer to our Blast/Explosion page for more details.

Hallwood Modular Buildings is a “one stop shop.” Hallwood Modular Buildings can provide full turn key installations, site supervision services, and repair and maintenance contracts on either a project or plant level basis. 

Hallwood Modular Buildings offers both non-ADA and ADA compliant buildings. The determining factors of which should be used are code requirements and/or customer specifications.

There are many benefits to Hallwood Modulars blast resistant building design. One of the benefits is cost. A typical Hallwood Modular blast resistant building is comparative to the cost of a NON blast resistant traditional construction building. Some of the other major benefits to Hallwood Modulars modular designs include: quicker delivery schedules, portability, flexibility through a patent pending mechanical connection system. It also limits onsite labor and safety issues by utilizing an offsite controlled environment for construction.

The weight of our buildings varies from project to project, depending upon the size of the building and the level of interior finishing. To give you an idea, our standard 12×40 modules weigh 37,000lbs

Hallwood Modular Buildings has the capability of transporting buildings by truck, train, or water, however, for domestic applications; the most common transportation method is by truck.

The task committee on Blast-Resistant Design of the Petrochemical Committee of the Energy Division of American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) published 2nd edition of the “Design of Blast-Resistant Buildings in Petrochemical Facilities.”

This report provides general guidelines for the structural design of blast-resistant petrochemical facilities. Information is provided regarding U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements, design objectives, siting considerations, and load determination. References cite sources of detailed information. Detailed coverage is included for types of construction, dynamic material strengths, allowable response criteria, analysis methods, and design procedures. Typical details and ancillary considerations, such as doors and windows, are also included. A how-to discussion on the upgrade of existing buildings is provided for older facilities which may not meet current needs. Examples of calculations are included to illustrate design procedures.

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and more specifically, OSHA’s Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals(PSM) standard at 29 CFR 1910.119 establishes organizational and operational procedures, design guidance, audit programs, and a host of other methods intended to prevent or minimize the consequences of catastrophic releases of toxic, reactive, flammable, or explosive chemicals.

The American Petroleum Institute (API) established Recommended Practice (RP) 752 and 753 that provide guidelines for occupied structures situated in any process area.

  • API RP752
  • First released in 1995 based on desire to be proactive on OSHA Requirement.  2nd Edition- Periodic revision (2003) and 3rd Edition (2009/2010) Based on Texas City incident, OSHA comments and National Emphasis Program (NEP), addresses how to manage hazards associated with permanent structures in fixed locations that are situated in a process area of plants.
  • API RP753 initially released in 2007, provides guidance on how to manage hazards associated with portable (or temporary) buildings situated in the process area of plants. 

In 2017 OSHA conducted a detailed investigation and highlighted areas of the Process Safety Management standard (PSM) where OSHA issued the most citations during the Petroleum Refinery Process Safety Management National Emphasis Program (NEP).

The salient findings regarding Facility Siting is as follows:

Facility siting hazards were a common basis for PSM citations during NEP inspections. In some cases, OSHA found instances where a facility siting analysis was completely omitted by the PHA team. In other instances, OSHA found that the PHA did not adequately evaluate whether temporary structures were properly sited. However, the most common facility siting citations involved permanent structures.
Many PHA teams did not address proper spacing of equipment or possible vehicle impacts to equipment or piping. Furthermore, OSHA found that some PHAs did not evaluate whether control rooms were protected by adequate separation or building construction from explosion, fire, toxic material, or high overpressure hazards.
PHA teams also failed to evaluate whether various locations (operator’s break room, control room, parking lots, and abandoned administrative buildings) were safe from process releases.

Specialized engineering companies conduct site specific Consequence Analysis, Facility Siting Studies, Quantitative Risks Assessments, etc. that provide guidance on the safe operation of plant design including, quantify blast zones and determine the blast criteria of shelters in the blast zone.

The facility siting study in a comprehensive report that defines inputs, explains calculation methods, provides interim calculation results to allow verification and validation of the methods employed, and summarizes results in a range of meaningful forms. Composite contour plots of overpressure, flammability, and toxicity define key endpoints and provide an overview of areas vulnerable to impacts from assessed hazards.

Blast-Ratings on buildings in the process area of Chemical plants and Refineries usually range from 5-10 PSI peak free field with quantified millisecond duration requirements. 

The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) has established the following ratings to help estimate the cost of repairs and reuse after a blast-resistant building has been subjected to a blast.

The three response ranges for blast over-pressures are:

High Response: Key components may have lost structural integrity; building may collapse due to environmental conditions (i.e. wind, rain, snow); and total cost of repairs approaches replacement cost of building.
Medium Response: Significant repairs needed from widespread building damage; building cannot be used until repaired; and cost of repairs is likely significant.
Low Response: Minor repairs from damage needed but building can be used; and cost of repairs may be moderate. 
 
In theory, all response levels should protect the occupants. However, there are numerous other considerations than exterior damage response that should be considered, including interior construction and fastening methods, interior projectiles from wall deflection, door/window/AC fastening which may impact interior pressures, etc.

API RP752/753 was developed for use at natural gas liquids extraction and liquefaction plants, petrochemical and chemical plants, refineries, and other onshore facilities covered by the OSHA Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals, 29 CFR 1910.119.

API RP752/753 was developed for use at natural gas liquids extraction and liquefaction plants, petrochemical and chemical plants, refineries, and other onshore facilities covered by the OSHA Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals, 29 CFR 1910.119.

  1. Obtain the necessary building permits .
  2. If placed on dirt or gravel, be sure to compact the ground so that it forms a level and sturdy foundation with proper rainwater discharge away from building.
  3. If a concrete slab base is used, provide enough time to cure before installation.
  4. Identify existing water, electric, gas, and communication lines to provide adequate tie-ins and avoid disruption to existing facilities.
  5. Ensure the site is accessible by trucks carrying a wide load as well as space for the placement and overhead clearance of a crane (if used).

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Peace of Mind that Saves you Money!

Turnaround Planners and Managers have attempted to drive efficiencies through operating workforces off-site, which are later proven to be less efficient, riskier for personnel, and caused costly delays in the project.

 

Let us share how we can provide safety and peace of mind while helping bring your project in under budget.